Here’s a collection of quaternion formulas. Quaternions are very useful for orientation sensing, game programming and augmented reality applications. Magnitude Normal Quaternion Conjugate Axis Angle To Quaternion Where the axis is v and the angle is theta Quaternion To Axis Angle Where theta is the angle and v is the… Continue Reading Quaternion Formulas

Integrating Gyroscopes If you are not familiar with integration, read this first. Gyroscopes measure angular velocity. Angular velocity is the rate of change of angular displacement. You know that distance = speed * time. Well, angular displacement = angular velocity * time Gyroscopes can’t measure orientation with reference to the… Continue Reading Integrating Gyroscopes – Calculating Orientation pt2

Quaternions are often used in attitude and heading systems to represent orientation. This post describes quaternions and how to use them in orientation and navigation systems. Quaternions If you type ‘quaternion’ into google, it’ll tell you something like this a complex number of the form w + xi + yj… Continue Reading Quaternions And How to Really Use Them

IMUs contain sensors that measure acceleration, magnetic fields and rotation. This post is about the maths used to get orientation (pitch, roll, yaw) from these sensors. Getting The IMU Maths Library I made a maths library for Arduino and it has been used in quite a few cool projects (… Continue Reading IMU Maths – How To Calculate Orientation